May 21, 2019

International financing

International Financing

Nowadays, absorption of financial resources and varying forms has turned into a prerequisite for achievement of development goals, and with regard to the special status of many developing counties it is not possible to easily supply the capital required for implementation of great projects; therefore, the alternative way out, i.e., absorption of foreign capitals has been greatly welcome in such countries. Foreign investment is defined as applying foreign capital in the activities whose risk of capital return and its interests is borne by the investor.

The important role of foreign investment is in financing and providing the required financial resources and acting as the supplement to local financial resources. Entry of foreign capitals to a country is highly advantageous to the target country’s economy and industry, in addition to the supply of capital and financial resources. Advanced technology, specialty, technical knowhow and management systems require entrance of foreign capital to the host country for boosting the investors’ profits, and they encourage foreign countries to have more strong presence in the world economy and trade.

Foreign Financing Methods

According to a general classification, foreign financing methods can be divided into two categories: borrowing and non-borrowing, and they are distinguished mainly by trading risks guaranteeing procedure, as well as the Government’s role and obligations in covering such category of risks.

A)     Making use of foreign capitals via borrowing methods:

The investee country receives a loan from the loan-providing country or institute. Then, the investee country is liable to make repayment of such loan to the loan provider by installments. Some of such methods include:

1)     Finance

2)     Refinance

3)     Usance

4)     Buyer’s credit

5)     International loans

Some of features of borrowing methods are as follows:

1)     All of relevant risks of the plan are borne by the financial resources recipient and the Government

2)     Repayment of all received resources, interest and incurred costs is guaranteed the Government (hence, all credit risks are assumed by the Government)

3)     Repayment of the loan is dependent on the implementation of the plan or failure of the same)

4)     Granting loan (often) is subject to making purchase machinery and services from the producers and providers of the loan-granting country

5)     Being of uncertain of properly using of the received resources

6)     It has negative effects on financial credit indices of the Country and balance of payments, and weakens the potential of receiving loans from abroad by the Government

B)     Making use of foreign capitals via non-borrowing methods:

By this method, the supplier of financial resources (investor) expects return of principal and interest of invested resources from the economic performance of the plan upon accepting the risk in applying the financial resources in the intended activity or plan. The methods of investment are carried out in following forms:

1)     Foreign direct investment

2)     Non-equity modes of investment

3)     Concession agreement

4)     Foreign portfolio investment

Foreign investment may be divided into two categories in respect of executive status of the new or existing project as the destination of foreign capital absorption:

-          Investment in new projects (green field), i.e., setting up and creating a totally new activity in the target country.

-          Acquisition and merger of an existing entity in the country

Some of features of non-borrowing methods are as follows:

1)     Trading risks are born by the foreign investor and his local partner, and political risks are assumed by the Government

2)     The government only assumes the damages due to the Government’s interventions (confiscation, nationalization, set rules and regulations which are directly detrimental to the investment, infringement of contracts and obligations of the Government)

3)     The capital is retuned after implementation of the plan and its showing profit from earrings due from its sales of products

4)     Competitive international tender may be held to make sure of optimal investment of financial resources and its efficient management by the private sector

5)     The received resources are definitely used due to the investor’s interests and supervision by Foreign Investment Board and Investment Organization

6)     It have positive effects on financial credit indices and balance of payments of the country and encourages entry of more foreign capital

Services

One of our major specialties and services is to supply the required foreign exchange of plans and projects of Iranian companies via international investors. Amin Nikan Afagh Investment Advisory Company, being supported by the knowledge and operational experiences of its specialists and also through its strategic communications with reputable international financial institutes and by continuous and mutual international collaborations, provides a complete collection of services toward financing via promotion of foreign investors; some of which are as follows:

1)     Provide consultation concerning supply of foreign financial resources and determine the proper time, procedure and amount for supplying

2)     Provide consultation concerning opportunities and fields of financing in production, trading, service provision, construction and real estate domains

3)     Provide consultation concerning valuation and appropriate prices in transactions with foreign investors

4)     Provide consultation concerning partnership and selection of reputable and trustworthy foreign investors

5)     Provide consultation and marketing services for transference of ownership, merger, acquisition and separation, upon dealing with reputable foreign investors

6)     To offer help in identification and encouraging reputable foreign investors

7)     To do marketing and sell securities to reputable foreign investors

-          Identification of foreign institutional investors (entry of foreign investors to the Iranian market) and selection  of appropriate investors with respect to the environmental conditions

-          Offering shares in foreign stock markets

-          Marketing and identification of foreign investors for main and block transactions

-          Offering transnational certificates of deposit in abroad (general or private offering)

8)     Provide consultation and engage in designing and presenting feasibility studies, acceptable to the international banks